Diyala Journal of Medicine http://djm.uodiyala.edu.iq/index.php/djm <p style="text-align: justify;">Diyala Journal of Medicine (DJM) was established according to agreement of Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-foundation of as per authorization letter Number 12c/2433 in 19th August 2010. Fellow up, Started to receiving different manuscripts in all fields of medicine such as clinical, basic, dentist, pharmacology and scientific original articles. Diyala Journal of Medicine usually Deal with articles closely related with clinical problem more common in Iraq and Middle East. Also considered is a periodic peer-reviewed journal published biannually by the College of Medicine in Diyala University. However, review articles of high standards will be considered Writing in English languages with Arabic abstract.</p> <p><span style="font-size: 20px; font-family: Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size: 20px; color: #17365d;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> College of Medicine - University of Diyala en-US Diyala Journal of Medicine 2219-9764 <p>All Rights Reserved.</p> Histological Study of Molar Pregnancy by using some of the Special Stains http://djm.uodiyala.edu.iq/index.php/djm/article/view/259 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Molar pregnancy (hydatidiform mole HM) is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which a non-viable fertilized egg implants in the uterus and will fail to come to term. A molar pregnancy is a gestational trophoblastic disease which grows into a mass in the uterus that has swollen chorionic villi. These villi grow in clusters that resemble grapes.&nbsp; A molar pregnancy can develop when a fertilized egg does not contain an original maternal nucleus. The diagnosis of HM is based on its morphology. In classic cases, the abnormally large villi have a vesicular or a grape like appearance. Histologically, HM presents variable degrees of circumferential trophoblastic hyperplasia and epithelial atypia. Distinguish between complete mole (CM) and partial mole (PM) is difficult especially with early diagnosis and evacuation of molar pregnancies, however, the criteria are subjective and show considerable inter-observer variability. Unfortunately in our country the histological diagnosis is depend only on routine stain (H&amp;E) which is not giving a clear results in some cases because of that, the study design to find the similarities and differences between the two types of molar pregnancy by using some of special stains which surely distinguish between complete and partial moles samples using immunohistochemical marker P57KIP2.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To detecting if the special stain can be helpful to distinguish between the two types of molar pregnancy also to find the accuracy of the routine diagnosis of hydatidiform mole comparing with P57 immunohistochemistry stain.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> The study conducted at the maternal teaching hospital in Erbil city. Thirty cases of Molar Pregnancy diagnosed, 15 of them were complete and the others were partial mole. All the samples studied histologically using H&amp;E and some of special stains including: PAS stain, Congo red, and Trichrom, to describe the morphological differences between the two types of mole. Also immunohistological P57 stain was used in this study to confirm the type of mole.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study result shows the morphological variation between complete and partial hydatidiform through using the routine H&amp;E stain and special stains. The complete hydatidiform mole sections showed vesicular swelling of chorionic villi and circumferential trophoblastic hyperplasia, the trophoblastic proliferation grade varying in complete samples, most samples showed grade II (46.6%) of trophoblastic proliferation, while few of samples showed grade III (13.3%). The cases of partial hydatidiform mole showed scattered hydropic villi with irregular scalloped villous outlines and mild trophoblastic hyperplasia, trophoblastic distribution elucidate that the majority (60%) of samples show zonal distribution and high percentage (73.3%) of focal trophoblastic proliferation. The vessels in the villous stroma of most of partial molar samples (80%) was obviously seen also the cistern appear clearly in 73.33% of the samples and all partial molar pregnancy samples showed presence of fetal&nbsp; part in contrast to complete mole. The PAS stain show no different between the two types of molar pregnancy samples while the Congo red stained the partial molar samples intensely comparing with complete samples opposite to the trichrome stain which showed highly color intensity in complete than in partial samples. In this study the most important noticed results was high percentage (26.66) of positive result of P57 in complete diagnosed sample by routine way.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The special stains can be helpful in diagnosis of hydatidiform mole and&nbsp; The study of p57 immunohistochemistry stain indicate present of misread in routine diagnoses of complete hydatidiform due to mimic morphological characters.</p> Tuqa Yousif Sharef Prshang Tawfiq Toqa J Chkhaim Copyright (c) 2019-06-16 2019-06-16 16 2 72 82 Estimation of Insulin and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus http://djm.uodiyala.edu.iq/index.php/djm/article/view/260 <p><strong>Background:</strong>Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease began when there is essential insufficiency of insulin that produces by the pancreas, sometimes by the incompetence of that insulin. Such as insufficiency lead to elevate blood glucose&nbsp; concentrations, that in sequence impairment many human body. There are two main types of this disease, our study will be on type 1diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes&nbsp; which called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in this type the&nbsp; pancreas be unsuccessful to produce the insulin. Type1diabetes milltus progress commonly in children and young people, type 1 diabetes is described by presence of mixing autoantibodies against variation of insulin antigens, such as Insulin autoantibodies,Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase&nbsp; Autoantibodies.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong>To estimate the most autoantibodies and assessment of&nbsp; HbA1c in type 1 DM.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted at in AL-kindy Teaching Hospital-Center of Endocrine glands and&nbsp; diabetes Mellitus For the period 1/7/2016&nbsp; until 1/2/2017, The study included (75) individual divided into (50) diabetic patients( 25 female and 25 male) their ages ranging between 10-45 years and(25).Healthy persons (11 female and 14 male) and there was questions for each patient about( Age, Family history, Onset of disease\years).Quantative ELISA test for detection of circulating autoantibodies against Glutamic Acid DecarboxylaseزIndirect immunofluorescence test to detected&nbsp; insulin auto antibodies in human serum, and measurements level of&nbsp; HbA1c for each subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this study indicate importance of autoantibodies to identify a group of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.This results showed significant difference in the prevalence of&nbsp; autoantibodies in diabetes mellitus type 1 patients (P&lt;0.05) .There was significant association&nbsp; between Insulin and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase&nbsp; Autoantibodies. and onset of&nbsp; type 1diabetes mellitus, These autoantibodies are more occurrence&nbsp; in earlier affected type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients . No correlation between gender and diabetes type 1 non significant difference (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>There are many cases of&nbsp; Diabetes Mellitus identified by laboratory investigation only ; whom are asymptomatic, screening tests had supportive for quick detection and treatment.</p> Abbas J Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019-06-16 2019-06-16 16 2 83 90 Transcriptomic Study of B-cell associated X (BAX) and B-cell lymphoma (BCL2) Protein in Breast Cancer http://djm.uodiyala.edu.iq/index.php/djm/article/view/261 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cancer is one of the major human problems and breast cancer is a significant health problem. In spite of the developed treatment methods, breast cancer cannot be treated very effectively. Therefore, the identification of novel genes that will have played a role in the treatment and diagnosis of breast cancer and the high interest of B-cell lymphoma (BCL2) family proteins are critical regulators of apoptosis).</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the levels of BCL2, BAX, and B-cell integrate medium (BIM) proteins which the prognosis and apoptosis processes of the breast cell line.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> Collected tissue samples from normal and cancer tissue type,&nbsp; RNA isolated from the cell,&nbsp; then quantitation done,&nbsp; cDNA synthesized, cDNA quantitation and&nbsp; Real-time PCR was performed to see the level between two kinds of genes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> BCL2&nbsp; protein level was significantly lessened in regulator molecule tissues of a cell line with breast cancer. In contrast to Bax protein, no significant difference was detected in the BIM expression level. Our result also showed that low BCL2 expression level is associated with significant clinical characteristics of the patient such as tumor grade, stage and breast cancer type.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings of our study showed that BCL2 has a role in breast cancer formation and might be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.</p> Ayshan Rafat Yassin Ashti Mohammad Amin Said Yasin Kareem Amin Copyright (c) 2019-06-16 2019-06-16 16 2 91 100