Diyala Journal of Medicine <p style="text-align: justify;">Diyala Journal of Medicine (DJM) was established according to agreement of Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-foundation of as per authorization letter Number 12c/2433 in 19th August 2010. Fellow up, Started to receiving different manuscripts in all fields of medicine such as clinical, basic, dentist, pharmacology and scientific original articles. Diyala Journal of Medicine usually Deal with articles closely related with clinical problem more common in Iraq and Middle East. Also considered is a periodic peer-reviewed journal published biannually by the College of Medicine in Diyala University. However, review articles of high standards will be considered Writing in English languages with Arabic abstract.</p> <p><span style="font-size: 20px; font-family: Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size: 20px; color: #17365d;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> College of Medicine - University of Diyala en-US Diyala Journal of Medicine 2219-9764 <p>All Rights Reserved.</p> The level of serum Tumor Marker CA15-3 in women with Breast Cancer <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in women in all world regions. About 1.7 million cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women worldwide. There were approximately 0.5 million deaths worldwide from breast cancer in 2012, several serum tumor markers have been evaluated in breast cancer. CA15-3 is the most important serum biomarkers used for diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the level of CA15-3 of studied groups according to age categories, residence nearby industries, and history of breast feeding.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> This study was carried out at the Breast Surgery Outpatients and the Oncology Clinic at Oncology Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. It included 50 women who were newly diagnosed by oncology group to have had breast cancer and didn’t receive chemotherapy yet and 50 healthy women as control.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was significant increase at (P&gt; 0.05) in serum CA15-3 level of patients with age category (71-80) years (198.33 ± 136.60 U/ml) and significant elevation in serum CA15-3 level of patients who lived near industries or incinerators (120 ± 94.52 U/ml) also there was significant increase in serum CA15-3 level in healthy women with breast feeding history (25.8 ± 15.26 U/ml).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> CA15-3 level significantly elevated in elderly patients with age category (71-80) years and in patients with residence nearby industries or incinerators. Therefore, those patients at high risk of developing metastatic breast cancer or advanced stages of breast cancer.</p> Huda Hameed Othman Walaa Najm Abood Nazar Abdul Hassan Alwakeel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 15 1 24 29 Aetiology and Presentation of Cervical Lymphadenopathy In Baquba Teaching Hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cervical lymphadenopathy is a common presenting complaint in an out-patient clinic in Baquba Teaching Hospital. There are various causes which can cause enlargement of cervical lymph nodes starting from simple inflammation to malignant causes. Tuberculous adenitis is an important and familiar cause of cervical lymphadenopathy which is more common in low socio-economic countries. Fine needle aspiration, incisional and/or excision biopsies are performed to reach the definitive diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To find out the most common causes of cervical lymphadenopathy in Baquba Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> It is a prospective study conducted in Baquba Teaching Hospital over four years (2009-2013). Patients involved in the study are those with cervical lymphadenopathy for more than 3 weeks that are not responding to medical treatment. Fine needle aspiration and incisional or excisional biopsy performed for all patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> One hundred and eighty seven patients (103 males, 84 females) with cervical lymphadenopathy were included in the study. The age range of the patients was from 10 to 75 years. The most common two cause were Tuberculous lymphadenitis 69(36.9%) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma 61(32.6%). The aforementioned causes were followed in order of frequency by reactive changes 23(12.3%) and non-specific inflammation 19(10.2%). The least common causes were metastatic carcinomas 13(7%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2(1%).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Tubercular cervical lymphadenitis is a common disease in our country. So it is recommend to exclude tubercular lymphadenopathy in any patient presented with chronic lymphadenitis that is not responding to medical treatment. Early diagnosis &amp; proper treatment will lead to recovery of the disease and lessen the complications.</p> Saad Y Ibrahim Jalil Ibrahim Khalf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 15 1 1 6 A Comparative study of some Immunological and Molecular Techniques to Detect Cytomegalovirus in patients with Kidney Failure in Diyala Governort <p><strong>Background:</strong> Kidney failure can be defined as the total failure of toxins and waste from filtration the blood. This disease is characterized by reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to about 20-50% , resulting in the failure to regulate the amount of fluid in the body and it is divided into two types&nbsp; acute and chronic renal failure .The immunity of patients with haemodialysis becomes weak and this cause viral infections such as&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Cytomegalovirus human cells.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the relationship between kidney failure and Cytomegalovirus human cells and compare the molecular and immunological techniques in diagnose this virus.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> Seventy blood sample were collected from patients with kidney failure after diagnosis by specialists in the Ibn Sina Centre for dialysis and 20 individuals as acontrol. The IgG and IgM were detected by ELISA , in addition the diagnose of virus by cassette and compare the results of CMV diagnosis(by ELISA technique) with molecular technique (PCR) results.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> ELISA&nbsp; results showed that the incidence of CMV&nbsp; IgG was 25 patients (35.7%)&nbsp; while IgM was in 5 patient (7.1%). The incidence of IgG in males was (56%). In females was (44%). while the result of IgM in male was (100%) and In females (5) The results of cassette&nbsp; showed CMV virus was seropositivity (21.4%) for males and females with very high difference observed between the two groups of study and more differences were observed between test results and sex between test results and age groups, and showed a positive PCR test results of interaction (66.6%) and (20) of (30) sample tested after ELISA techniques to detect&nbsp; IgG and IgM in comparison among three techniques used by PCR technique the best&nbsp; technique were IgG and IgM ELISA test results and test cassette&nbsp; and technique PCR molecular are 21.4% and 7.1% and 35.7% and 66.6%.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results showed that Cytomegalovirus has relationship with chronic and acute renal failure and can affect the patient's immune status. our results can provide an advanced diagnosis of viral infections among patients in hospitals in Iraq.</p> Shahad Shaker Mahmood Abbas Abod Farhan Mohmmed Abdul Daim Saleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 15 1 7 17