Diyala Journal of Medicine 2018-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Salih M. Salman Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Diyala Journal of Medicine (DJM) was established according to agreement of Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-foundation of as per authorization letter Number 12c/2433 in 19th August 2010. Fellow up, Started to receiving different manuscripts in all fields of medicine such as clinical, basic, dentist, pharmacology and scientific original articles. Diyala Journal of Medicine usually Deal with articles closely related with clinical problem more common in Iraq and Middle East. Also considered is a periodic peer-reviewed journal published biannually by the College of Medicine in Diyala University. However, review articles of high standards will be considered Writing in English languages with Arabic abstract.</p> <p><span style="font-size: 20px; font-family: Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size: 20px; color: #17365d;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Impact of Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol-Epoetin Beta on serum magnesium in patients with end stage renal disease undergoing hemo dialysis 2018-06-10T05:35:39+00:00 Mohanad Mohsen Hassan Adnan Gadbhan Alwan Ali Jasim Hashim Alsaedi <p><strong>Background:</strong> Methoxy polyethylene glycol-Epoetin beta (M.PG.E-β) is a long-acting</p> <p>erythropoietin receptor activator treatment indicated for the treatment of patients with anemia associated with end stage renal disease (E.S.R.D). It is the first approved chemically modified erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (E.S.A). Hypermagnesemia is one of the common complications&nbsp; accompanied with E.S.R.D patients submitted to hemodialysis. It progresses early in the course of the disease and increases its rate with the declination in renal efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study targeted to determine the influence of M.PG.E-β therapy on serum Mg+2 levels in patients with E.S.R.D.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> In this study , seventy patients with E.S.R.D on hemodialysis receiving M.PG.E-β and twenty healthy subjects without medical illnesses were included in this case-control cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Patients had significantly higher serum Mg+2 level at the baseline (p&lt;0.01) compared to the healthy control group because of loss of renal function in these patients. M.PG.E-β dose was then given three months after the baseline dose and showed a significant decline in serum Mg+2 levels (p&lt;0.05) in patients with E.S.R.D during the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It can be concluded that relative elevation of serum Mg+2 was linked with E.S.R.D patients and the administration of M.PG.E-β usually leads to a significant subside in its levels.</p> 2018-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of vitamin-D3 Concentration in Patients with Thalassemia in Baghdad City 2018-06-10T05:41:41+00:00 Ali Abdul Hussian Mahdi Amal Azeez Kareem Yousor Majid Jameel <p><strong>Background:</strong>Thalassemia is inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal&nbsp; hemoglobin production.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong>To evaluate decreasing in vitamin-D3 concentration in patients with thalassemia among healthy men in Baghdad city.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> In this study containing 99 thalassemia patients from Baghdad city (68 female and 31 male patients) and (31 healthy males and 10 healthy women) as a control group collected from Al-Kadhymia hospital. Their age ranged (15-40) years old which are compatible to age of study group. Serum samples taken from the patients to determined vitamin-D concentration by using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technique, during the period 1st April 2016 to 28th January 2017.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:The study revealed highly significant (P&lt;0.01) low of vitamin-D3 concentration in patients with thalassemia (89.9% decrease vit-D3 compared with 10.1% control group vit-D3 concentration).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:The decreasing in vitamin-D3 concentration associated with thalassemia patients was due to less exposure to sun light that affected the vitamin metabolism in their bodies.</p> 2018-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Blood Groups and Susceptibility to Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among β- Thalassaemia Patients 2018-06-06T07:15:34+00:00 Najdat Shukur Mahmood <p><strong>Background:</strong> Blood groups have revealed associations with a variety of diseases. However, most of these studies concerned general population and only few of them the potential relationship with viral hepatitis.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To investigate the association of ABO and Rh blood groups with hepatitis C viral infection in β- thalassaemia patients.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> A retrospective study was conducted during 2014 at Thalassaemia Center. Hepatitis C ELISA test and blood groups of β- thalassaemia patients were recorded. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 20, was used to analyze data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Total enrolled patients were 215, seropositive hepatitis C was evident in 24 (11.2%). The overall distribution blood groups among thalassaemia patients was compatible with that of general population. Regarding seropositive hepatitis C patients, most (n=20, 83.3%) were A and B blood groups, only 3 patients (12.5%) were O, and 1 patient (4.2%) AB. Therefore, hepatitis&nbsp; C was significantly associated with groups A and B and those who have group O were spared (p value .014). Most of patients were Rh D positive and no significant effect (p value .392) on hepatitis C could be found.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:In β- thalassaemia, most of the hepatitis C infected patients were blood groups A and B whereas blood group O patients seemed to be less susceptible or protected against this infection.</p> 2018-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Overweight and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents in Al-Muqdadiyah City 2018-06-06T07:51:38+00:00 Hameed M Majeed Raya Zaid Ali <p><strong>Background:</strong> The obesity of the children, teens, or adults is one of the most serious risks to the health in the twenty first century. It appears widely during the last three decades and this growing distribution of the children obesity has a relationship with the occurrence of the diseases in earlier ages because the obesity has negative effects nearly on the whole body organs and usually causes serious diseases.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To know the distribution of this epidemic among our children and to have a real picture about the children of the primary schools in Al-Muqdadiyah region.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> A cross-section study, involved the pupils of the fifth and the sixth stages, the information and the measurements were taken from 633 children (373 males, 260 females) their ages were between 123-144 months, in one month duration (December of 2016), during this period the visits were to 10 primary schools for both genders (four of them in the center of the region and six in the surrounding villages those belong to the region), included the age, weight, height, counting the body mass index, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in addition to the questionnaire form and the information of the school card.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The percentages of the overweight and the obesity for the males reached 13.6% , 4.07% for the fifth and the sixth stages respectively while for the females they were 10.31% , 6.06% for the fifth and the sixth stages respectively. The percentages of the overweight and the central obesity of the waist circumference for the males were 4.2% , 0.81% for the fifth and the sixth stages respectively while for the females they were 5% , 2.32% for the fifth and the sixth stages respectively. There was an increasing in the percentages of the systolic blood pressure for the males and the females in the fifth and the sixth stages with a decreasing in the percentages of the normal blood pressure for the both genders as they reached for the males to 36.4% , 34.15% in the fifth and the sixth stages respectively, for females 36.98% , 22.73% in the fifth and the sixth stages respectively while the percentages of the normal diastolic blood pressure were 56% , 54.47% for the males in the fifth and the sixth stages, for the females were 49.48% , 42.42% in the fifth and the sixth stages respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The rate of the elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure are high among the children that warns the occurrence of the health casualties in the future.</p> 2018-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## High BMI(Obesity and Overweight) as a risk factor for increased incidence of miscarriage in pregnant women attending Emergency Department in Al- Batool Maternity 2018-06-06T08:30:17+00:00 Semaa Nezar Adil Sawsan Talib Salman <p><strong>Background:</strong>Obesity has been known to be an obstetric risk factor because of the documented complications associated with it , and it is an indication for booking in a tertiary health institution.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To find if there is relation between high BMI (obesity or overweight) and risk of miscarriage.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> This study was done in Al-Batool Maternity Teaching Hospital in Baquba City/ Diyala&nbsp; during the period from 1st of&nbsp; July 2016 to 28th of&nbsp; February 2017.&nbsp; Total number of&nbsp; 2500 were admitted during period of study, 105 of them fit inclusion criteria (pregnant for ≤ 22 weeks of gestation and had signs and symptoms of miscarriage), divided into two groups (70 pregnant with high BMI women and 35 with normal BMI as control women), the two groups were matched for age and&nbsp; parity. Different parameters used to compare the risk of miscarriage between obese and control groups .</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean ages were&nbsp; (25.02 ± 5.78) years and (25.8 ± 5.83) for both high BMI group and control group respectively. Higher incidence of miscarriage was observed in high BMI women who living in urban area than control women living in the same area (57.1 % ) , (37.1 % ) respectively, and most of cases were house wives with high BMI&nbsp; (95.7 %) while (85.7 %) was&nbsp; control group . Although&nbsp; the&nbsp; incidence of miscarriage was higher during the second trimester in high BMI women than control women but it is not statistically significant&nbsp; . This study shows no significant increase of miscarriage in a women with a previous history of miscarriage between high BMI group and control group .&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: High BMI pregnant women who lived in urban area had statistically significant increase risk of miscarriage, so good preconception care for those women to decrease their weight prior to pregnancy to avoid this complication&nbsp; .</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>BMI, Miscarriage, Urban area.</p> 2018-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Glutamic acid decarboxylase-IgG among T2DM patients with HCMV infection and HbA1c levels 2018-06-06T09:46:00+00:00 Lajan Q Rahman Saeed Kh Hussain Pinar Kh Khudhur Amin A Bakir <p><strong>Background:</strong>Prophetic immune marker glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody is a distinctive diagnosis between Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Individuals have diagnose as Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in adults (LADA) has such autoantibody, which those patients&nbsp; incorrectly diagnosed as T2DM.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determines frequency of anti- GAD IgG antibody marker in LADA patients, were misdiagnosed as T2DM in relevance with a Cytomegalovirus infectin antibodies and Hemoglobine A1c levels.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> Ninety five patients with T2DM chosen, arranged in two groups with and without cardio vascular diseases (CVD) and a garoup of 49 individuals as healthy control matched age and gender. Samples took from subjects that attended to Hawler Cardiac Center and Diabetic Centers at Erbil city in March 2014. Sera subjected to Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Glycohemoglobin assay for HbA1c.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: GAD islet cell autoantibody was seropositive in 3.05% diabetics and 2.04% controls. There were high titers of HbA1c with low C-peptide in diabetics. A weak negative correlation was found with significant difference between anti-GAD IgG and age (r = -0.282, P &lt; 0.017 correspondingly ).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Appropriate diagnosis for LADA could help to preserve the residual Beta-cell function.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Anti-GAD-IgG, Anti-CMC-IgG, C-peptide, HbA1c.</p> 2018-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Current Indications of Tonsillectomy With or Without Adenoidectomy in Diayala Governorate 2018-06-07T05:49:37+00:00 Duraid H Abid Alkadem Sama Khalid Salim Ali L Al-Kerttani <p><strong>Background:</strong>Tonsillitis refers to viral or bacterial infection of the palatine tonsils. It presents in acute or chronic state. Tonsillitis usually associated with adenoid hypertrophy especially in children. Tonsillectomy is considered to be one of the most common&nbsp; surgical procedures held in otolaryngological theaters. Usually both tonsils are removed and adenoidectomy may be performed at the same time.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong>This study is done because of limitation of data exist with respect to the recent prevalence of indications for tonsillectomy . We sought to determine the most common indications for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy in Baquba Teaching hospital in Diyala governorate&nbsp; in different age groups and genders.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong>The study involved 100&nbsp; patients&nbsp; selected randomly from October&nbsp; 2016 to March 2017 viewed at the E.N.T.&nbsp; (Otolaryngology) ward in Baquba Teaching Hospital. The age group ranged from 3-28 years .&nbsp; Before surgery a detailed history and examination were taken from the patients themselves or&nbsp; their parents . Those patients all have a previous history of tonsillitis that was&nbsp; influencing their life style or school performance.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 46% of our patients&nbsp; had infective causes&nbsp; or recurrent tonsillitis as an indication for tonsillectomy, while 27%&nbsp; had obstructive causes especially at night&nbsp; (obstructive sleep apnea) as an indication for surgery. In this study we found 6% of our patients, the surgery is indicated&nbsp; due to recurrent otitis media. Furthermore, 2%&nbsp; were due to peri-tonsillar abscess as indications for surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In this study,&nbsp; we present that patients who undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, recurrent infective tonsillitis is more than obstructive tonsillitis (OSA) as indications for surgery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>O.S.A.=obstructive sleep apnea,O.M.=otitis mediaP.T.A.=peritonsillar abscess.</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Hepatic Resection Procedures for Benign and Malignant Focal Liver Lesions 2018-06-07T05:55:57+00:00 Musafir Atea Hashim Bashar Abbas Abdul-Hassan Salah Obaid Hamad <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong>Liver resection is the curative treatment for focal liver lesions. It is one of the high risk surgical procedures performed by experienced surgeons.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the different types of liver resections methods and associated factors related to morbidity and mortality in Gastroenterology Hospital and Baghdad Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> This prospective study included 35 patients (age range 28-58 years, 15 male and 20 female) with focal liver lesions during the period from November, 2013 to February 2016. Fourteen patients were asymptomatic while the other patients were complaining form different symptoms. Preoperative assessment included liver and renal function tests, tumor markers and radiological investigations. Patients were followed up for one month for postoperative short-term complications.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Bleeding was the most serious perioperative complication and all patients required blood transfusion. Eight hepatic resection methods were employed, and 8 types of lesions were detected, of which metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and cavernous hemangioma are the most prevalent (34.29% and 22.57% respectively). The duration of surgery ranged from 100 min in wedge resection to 300 min in different types of hepatectomy with average 8 days hospital stay. The most prevalent short-term complications were fever and atelectasis and wound infection (37.14% and 22.57% respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>Most evaluation criteria are comparable with that reported in global series, and accordingly, our center could perform different types liver resection.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Hepatic resection, focal liver lesions.</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bacteriological Study of the Bacteria Cause Urinary Tract Infection of Patients Admitted to Cardiac Care Unite a Baqubah General Teaching Hospital 2018-06-07T06:02:23+00:00 Hanan Thamer Najim Abbas Abod Farhan Ahmed Methab Athab <p><strong>Background:</strong>Urinary tract infection patient Urinary Tract Infection ( UTI ) one of commonest types of&nbsp; patient admitted to CCU ( cardiac care unit )&nbsp; of other medical wards this is occur directly from contact to infected hand or material or during catheterization.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong>To evaluation common bacterial cause UTI in patients admitted Cardiac Care Unite to show the antimicrobial agent and bacteria resistant and production the biofilm.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> Collection of samples from urine aseptically for culture.Isolation and identification of uropathogens using biochemical tests and testing ability of these bacterial isolation for virulence production and testing the antimicrobial susceptibility test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It is A total of 135 catheter samples&nbsp; were collected from&nbsp; patient (135) catheter samples from patients in CCU at Baqubah General Teaching Hospital for the period from&nbsp; 1st November 2016 to 1st&nbsp;&nbsp; March 2017 frommales and female, and the samples and cultured on the medium blood agar and MacConkey agar.&nbsp; Then growing bacterial farms subjected to microscopic and biochemical tests for the diagnosis of bacteria. Escherichia coli with a ratio 31.8% , and (20)isolations of Proteus mirabilis with a ratio 18.2%, 16 isolates of&nbsp; Klebsiella pneumonia,&nbsp; (14) isolations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a ratio&nbsp; 12.7% .The Antimicrobial sensitivity is investigated for (9) antibiotics&nbsp; from different groups including; The results show a high resistance to most of the antibiotics under study, and resistance all isolates ware of Aztreonam ,Cefotaxime , Co-Trimoxazol with ratio&nbsp;&nbsp; 95% , Naldixic acid with ratio 100%,&nbsp; Tetracycline&nbsp; 75% , Gentamycin&nbsp; 70%&nbsp; and Antimicrobial sensitivity to antibiotics&nbsp; to Amikacin&nbsp; 45%&nbsp; followed by Ciproflaxcin&nbsp; 50%&nbsp; and tobramycin&nbsp; 80% . All kinds of bacteria were produced in biofilm in the ELISA method with a ratio 100% ,while Congo red with a ratio 50%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was observed that multiple antibiotic resistance was common among local isolates of the bacteria under study and Biofilms are important in protecting the bacteria inside the catheter from antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong>Gram Negative bacteria, Antibiotics ,Biofilm ,Urinary Tract Infection , cardiac care unit.</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seroprevalence and Genotypic Distribution Patterns of Hepatitis C Virus among Infected Patients from Erbil Province: Kurdistan/Iraq 2018-06-07T06:11:58+00:00 Dlshad A Hassan Sazan Q Maulud Rastee H Saeed Beston F Nore <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong>Hepatitis C virus is a common cause of liver disease, hepatitis C virus&nbsp;&nbsp; exhibits high degree of genetic heterogeneity with characterized regional variations in genotype prevalence.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes in patients of Erbil Province, Kurdistan region/Iraq.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong>Blood samples were collected from 165 patients diagnosed positive for HCV antibody, which referral by specialists to Public Health Laboratory in Erbil province (Kurdistan/Iraq) between March 2015 and December 2016 for genotyping. Following extraction of viral RNA, HCV genotypes were determined in each case by using a PCR based genotyping kit.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: With (37%) genotype 1 was the most frequent genotype detected followed by 3 (27.3%), 4 (20%) and 2 (2.4%), while mixed genotypes were detected in 13.3%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study gives different estimation of HCV genotypes distribution among infected HCV patients in Kurdistan from prevalent distribution in Iraq and Middle East Arab countries, but comparable to global distribution.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>HCV Genotyping, seroprevalence,Liver disease.</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A study of The Frequency and Type of Mutation in Exon 11 in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes In Breast Cancer Women With Positive Family History 2018-06-07T06:38:22+00:00 Noor Jassim M Ammar Ahmed Sultan Fhadil Ahmed Dalaf <p><strong>Background:</strong>Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor gene and are inherited as an autosomal dominant. The cumulative lifetime risk of developing invasive breast cancer for those with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations ranges from 53% to 89%. Familial breast cancer represent less than 10% of all cancers of the breast, and cancers related to BRCA1 and BRCA2 familial disease account&nbsp; only for three-fourths to two-thirds of these cases. In women younger than 35 year old with CA breast, 10% to 15% have a BRCA1 mutation. Females with mutations involving BRCA 1/2 who are already affected by breast cancer have an increased risk of breast cancer involving the other breast of 52% and 66%.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify the frequency and the type of mutation in exon 11 in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer women with positive family history.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> This is a prospective study of fourteen females having breast cancer with positive family history of breast cancer. The study done in Baquba Teaching Hospital over a period of eight months (October 2016-July 2017). The age range of the patients was 40-70 years. Genomic DNA was extracted from lymphocytes yielded from the peripheral blood using the salting out procedure. Primers were used to amplify exon 11 region of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycling.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of eight variants in the BRCA1 gene and four variants in the BRCA2 gene were seen. Only one deleterious germline mutation in BRCA1 was detected in 1/14 (7.14%). The patient with deleterious mutation was 31 year-old and was having strong family history of the disease (two relatives, first and second degree). The sequence variant of the mutation was c.795_789delTT with an effect as p.Val256-Ser261ValLys. The remaining 11 identified variants belonging to BRCA1 and BRCA2) are classified as polymorphisms or unknown variants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in females with breast cancer with positive family history of the disease is never low and cannot be neglected. Therefore screening for these mutations is important for strict follow up of those with positive results.</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association of Malassezia furfur with Onychomycosis patients In Baghdad, Iraq 2018-06-07T06:50:11+00:00 Abbas M Ammari Noor Their Talib Anaam Fuad Hussein Eman Sabbah Abdul-Rahman <p><strong>Background:</strong>Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection. It infected about 10 % of the adults. The prevalence of onychomycosis is around 5% of fungal infections. Malassezia furfur is a basidiomycetous yeast and a part of normal human skin flora. By using biochemical, immunological and molecular methods on Malassezia yeast, this genus comprises 14 species. The higher detection rate of Malassezia furfur was observed by using molecular identification methods, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To detect of Malassezia furfur associated with Onychomycosis and evaluate the application of molecular method as rapid identification of <em>Malassezia furfur.</em></p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong>Fifty samples have been collected from&nbsp; patients presented signs of onychomycosis in Al- Imammian Al-Kadhamain Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq for a period of six months (from 1st of October to the 30rd of April). Clinical diagnosis was done by consultant dermatologist. Twenty nine were males and twenty one were females, the mean age of studied group was (26.12 ± 9.89) years old, with age ranging from 10 to 60 years old. Fifty healthy volunteers as control includes nail clips, the range of ages was from 1 to 60 years old with a mean of (27.88 ± 12.03) years. Patients and control were investigated for M. furfur using phenotypic and molecular analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>Males were more infected with onychomycosis than females, with a frequency percentage (58%). According to age, the most frequent among (31-40 years old) age groups. On the basis of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method it was showed a positive result in 6 (12%) out of 50 onychomycosis patients and a positive result in 1 (2%) out of 50 healthy volunteers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>From these findings, it was concluded that the males were most infected than females. PCR technique is sensitive, specific and less time consuming than cultural methods .</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Frequency of Hypothyroidism in Middle Aged Women Suffering From Headache in Diyala Governorate 2018-06-07T07:23:06+00:00 Zeina F Fuad Mohammed M Kamil Noor M Abdulkader <p><strong>Background:</strong>The previous researches show that the hypothyroidism occurs in approximately 1–2% of women and 0.1% of men and is characterized by a TSH level above the normal reference range and a T4 level below the reference range. This percentage indicate that: women have ten times the risk of hypothyroidism as men, with the difference became significant above the age of 34 years. Hypothyroidism may very easily be missed due to the similarity between the symptoms of hypothyroidism and that of menopause.Many middle-age women complained from headache whether it is tension headache or migraine and since headache is one of the symptoms of hypothyroidism, so there will be many cases of misdiagnosed hypothyroidism. This study estimates thyroid function test for those women to shed a light for the frequency of hypothyroid women.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To current study screening middle- aged women suffering from headache by thyroid function test to treat these women properly and not only treat the headache as a separate complain</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> Three hundred (300) women aged between 35 -55 years with headache included in this study, their chief complain is only headache, they have no other medical conditions or chronic diseases. They were divided in to two groups; the first group aged from (35- 45 years), while the second one aged from (46-55 years). Three hundred (300) healthy women aged between (35-55 years) are screened for TFT (thyroid function test) as a control group were divided in to two groups; the first group aged from (35-45 years) while the second group aged between (46-55 years). Thyroid function test (TSH, T3, and T4) were done for all groups.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There are 53(17.6%) women in patients group have high TSH with low T3 and T4 which means that they have overt hypothyroidism and 17(5.7%) women in the same group have only high TSH which means that they have (subclinical) hypothyroidism, while 230 (76.7%) women have normal thyroid function test. This means that: the total number of hypothyroid women is 70 (23.3%) which is regarded as high percentage.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:There is a high percentage of women suffering from headache having hypothyroidism so thyroid function test should be done for all middle-aged women with from headache.</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment knowledge of female academic staff in Kirkuk- Technical Institute to tetanus toxiod vaccination 2018-06-07T07:27:22+00:00 Wafa Mahmood Jasim <p><strong>Background:</strong>Tetanus is a preventable disease and no age is immune unless there is&nbsp; a previous protection with tetanus toxiod&nbsp; immunization which is a highly effective and the immunity lasts several years.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess&nbsp; the female academic staff&nbsp;&nbsp; knowledge regarding the vaccination status with tetanus toxoid.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> A&nbsp; cross- sectional study&nbsp; was&nbsp; conducted in Kirkuk Technical Institute&nbsp;&nbsp; for&nbsp; the&nbsp; period&nbsp; from 1st&nbsp;&nbsp; January /2014&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; till the&nbsp; end of&nbsp; May&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2014. A randomly selected sample from different&nbsp; scientific departments&nbsp; and a special questionnaire form was prepared by direct&nbsp; interviewing with the study&nbsp; sample and 100&nbsp; female academic staff&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were participated&nbsp; in the study after receiving&nbsp; a verbal&nbsp; consent from them before establishing&nbsp; the study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results revealed&nbsp; that 43.0% of study female academic staff aged ( 41-50&nbsp; ) years&nbsp; , (53.0% ) having&nbsp; a master&nbsp; certificate&nbsp; , (61.0%) of them are&nbsp; assistant lecturers , and (81.3%) of study female staff&nbsp; were vaccinated with tetanus toxiod&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ,and&nbsp; 73.6% of them&nbsp; are&nbsp; completed their vaccination schedule with tetanus toxiod during their reproductive life.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study concluded that&nbsp; female staff who are not completed their vaccination status with tetanus toxiod because of over load working.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2018-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##